Antibiotic resistance problems in Pakistan stem from:

  • Lack of access to appropriate antimicrobial therapy
  • Lack of regulation in human use
  • Lack of regulation in agricultural use
  • Lack of surveillance of antibiotic use and resistance
  • Lack of updated antibiotic use and treatment guidelines
  • Lack of continuing medical education on antibiotic use for prescribers
  • Lack of microbiological lab capacity/lab training/diagnostic tools

Antibiotic resistance complicates the treatment of infectious diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, acute respiratory infections, and diarrheal diseases.


APUA Pakistan was founded in November 2002.

Chapter Objectives and Priorities:

  • To collect and share data on antimicrobial resistance at a national level
  • To share protocols for appropriate antimicrobial testing
  • To develop research programs for studying and understanding antimicrobial resistance in Pakistan
  • To educate physicians and healthcare professionals about antibiotic resistance
  • To educate patients/consumers about the misuse of antibiotics.
  • To work with the Ministry of Health to regulate the sale of antibiotics without a prescription.


  • Member of WHO's Gonorrhea antimicrobial surveillance program--read more here
  • Development of website for sharing information about antimicrobials
  • Conducting research to study resistance, particularly in Gram negative bacteria, M. tuberculosis, malaria and pathogenic fungi.

In the next couple of years, the chapter plans to recruit members nationwide and hold a national meeting, organize an international symposium, and establish an information clearinghouse that will provide scientific information on new research.


Dr. Rumina Hasan, Chapter Leader


Dr. Afia Zafar
Dr. Erum Khan