White House Forum on Antibiotic Stewardship
On June 2, 2015, the White House hosted the Forum on Antibiotic Stewardship to bring together more than 100 key human and animal health leaders involved in antibiotic stewardship—the development, promotion, and implementation of activities to promote optimal use of antibiotics nationwide. The leaders represented hospitals and healthcare systems, human and animal health, diagnostic and diagnostic pharmaceutical companies, agriculture organizations, and more who committed to taking part in antibiotic stewardship to change the way antibiotics are currently prescribed and used to slow the spread of drug-resistant infections.

National Action Plan for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria
In March 2015, the White House released the National Action Plan for Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, which outlines steps for implementing the National Strategy and addressing policy recommendations of the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) report on combating antibiotic resistance.

Executive Order - Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria
The President released an Executive Order to emphasize the importance of addressing the threat of antimicrobial resistance. The Executive Order included specific actions related to:

  • Policy and the government’s role to detect, prevent, and control illness and death related to AR by implementing measures to reduce its spread
  • Establishing a task force for combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which would be co-chaired by the Secretaries of Defense, Agriculture, and Health and Human Services Department (HHS)
  • Developing a five-year National Action Plan to outline specific actions to be taken to implement the National Strategy and updates to the Action Plan in years thereafter
  • Establishing the Presidential Advisory Council on Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria
  • Improving antibiotic stewardship and use of antibiotics by hospitals and other inpatient healthcare delivery facilities
  • Strengthening national surveillance systems and laboratory networks of resistant bacteria
  • Preventing and responding to infections and outbreaks of antibiotic-resistant bacteria
  • Promoting new and next-generation antibiotics and diagnostics
  • Supporting cooperation of international antibiotic resistance efforts

CDC report: Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013
CDC released its report, Antimicrobial resistance threats in the U.S., and sounded the alarm to drug-resistant bacteria. The report, the first to look at burden and threats posed by AR on human health, shows:

  • More than two million people are sickened every year with antibiotic-resistant infections, with at least 23,000 dying as a result
  • Antibiotic-resistant bacteria prioritized by threat-level: urgent, serious, or concerning
  • Core initiatives taken by CDC to fight the spread of antibiotic resistance
  • Summaries of resistant bacteria, including key actions that public health professionals, health providers, and patients can take to combat antibiotic resistance

A Public Health Action Plan to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance
An action plan released in March 2011 by the Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance, co-chaired by the CDC, FDA, and NIH. The action items are organized into four focus areas: surveillance, prevention and control, research, and product development. Comments on the plan and on the Transatlantic Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance report from December 2010 were released on April 15, 2011, by Anthony D. So, M.D., MPA, and Quentin Ruiz-Esparza on behalf of ReAct and the Duke University Program on Global Health and Technology Access.

Combating Antimicrobial Resistance: Policy Recommendations to Save Lives
In commemoration of World Health Day 2011, The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) released the official publication "Combating Antimicrobial Resistance: Policy Recommendations to Save Lives," which summarizes IDSA recommendations about how to address antibiotic resistance. APUA is a strong supporter of IDSA's work to address the dry antibiotic pipeline and the crisis of antibiotic resistance.

STAAR (Strategies to Address Antimicrobial Resistance) Act
APUA is part of a national coalition to promote passage of the STAAR (Strategies to Address Antimicrobial Resistance) Act (S. 2313/H.R. 2400), which was introduced May 13, 2009. Led by Rep. Jim Matheson (D-UT), Sens. Sherrod Brown (D-OH) and Orrin Hatch (R-UT), STAAR will amend the Public Health Service Act to enhance efforts to address antimicrobial resistance and re-establish the Antimicrobial Resistance Task Force. The goal is to strengthen federal antimicrobial resistance surveillance, prevention and control.

IDSA 10x'20 Initiative
APUA endorses IDSA's advocacy campaign, the 10x'20 initiative, to address the dry antibiotic pipeline and call for 10 new antibiotics by 2020. 10 x '20 encourages the development of antibiotics and the improvement of diagnostic tests for priority resistant infections, as well as the creation of incentives that stimulate new antibacterial research and development. Read IDSA’s Report, Bad Bugs, No Drugs.

Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act (PAMTA)
APUA is part of a national coalition to promote passage of the Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act (PAMTA) of 2009 (S. 619/H.R. 1549). Spearheaded by Rep. Louise Slaughter (D-NY), Sen. Diane Feinstein (D-CA), PAMTA will limit non-therapeutic antibiotic use in food-animal production and preserve antibiotics for the treatment of human and animal diseases. See Recent APUA Activities to Improve Antibiotic Use in Food Animals

FDA Final Guidance #209
On April 13, 2012, the FDA issued a final Guidance on the Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food-Producing Animals, concluding that the unnecessary or inappropriate use of medically important antimicrobials in food animal production is not beneficial to public health. In agreement with APUA, FDA recommends that antibiotics be used with veterinary oversight. FDA does not consider use for growth promotion or improvement of feed efficiency to be judicious, but does consider antimicrobial use for treatment, control, and prevention of disease to be “necessary for assuring the health of food-producing animals.”

Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and Novel Intervention Strategies
On April 6-7, APUA President, Stuart B. Levy, and several members of our Board of Directors and Scientific Advisory Board participated in a public workshop held by the IOM's Forum on Microbial Threats. Download a free PDF of the workshop report.

Other Resources:

Policies and Incentives for Promoting Innovation in Antibiotic Research
This book, commissioned by the Swedish Government from the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, analyses many proposed policies and incentive mechanisms and sheds light on the key issues that will help policy-makers reach informed, concrete decisions on how to avert this potential public health crisis. (2010)

Antibiotic Use on the Farm and Public Health: A Looming Crisis
Summary report of House and Senate briefings in Washington D.C. (April 14, 2010)

Antibiotic Resistance: A Multi-Billion Dollar Healthcare Crisis
Summary report of Congressional briefing in Washington D.C. (December 2, 2009)

Joint FAO/WHO/OIE Expert Meeting on Critically Important Antimicrobials
Report of the FAO/WHO/OIE expert meeting in Rome, Italy (November 26-30, 2007)

Animal Feed Impact on Food Safety
Report of the FAO/WHO expert meeting in Rome, Italy (October 8-12, 2007)

WHO Global Strategy for Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance (2001)

A Public Health Action Plan to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance (2001)
Action plan by the Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance

WHO Report on Infectious Diseases: Overcoming Antimicrobial Resistance (2000)
Message from Gro Harlem Brundtland (Director-General, WHO)