2019 Update

Selected Activities 2015-2018

• With American Society for Microbiology (ASM) and the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (DC):  Exhibition in “Byblos-Lebanon” aimed at increasing awareness of transmission of infection and bacterial resistance between humans, animals, and the environment.

• With WHO and the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health: Six workshops to train clinical microbiologists from 20 Lebanese hospitals on WHONET software. 

• Signed MoU with the Ministry of Agriculture to collaborate in research activities about the spread of antimicrobial resistant organisms in Lebanese farm animals.

• Five-day course on “Epidemiology of Measurement of Resistance”. 

• Joint event with ASM: “Standardisation of antimicrobial susceptibility course”. 

• Joint event with ASM, the Ministry of Public Health (Lebanon) and WHO: “WHONET workshop for PULSENET/AMR laboratory network on Foodborne diseases.”

• Three workshops for children on microbial principles and hygiene.

• APUA-Lebanon chapter is sponsoring two microbiological studies in Lebanon:

1. Nationwide study, in collaboration with the Lebanese Society for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, to determine susceptibility profiles of Candida spp.

2. In collaboration with GSK: Analyse susceptibility profiles of S. pneumonia and H. influenzae in Lebanon and other Mediterranean countries


The most urgent antibiotic resistance problems identified by APUA Lebanon members are:

  • Lack of regulation in human use

  • Lack of surveillance of antibiotic use and resistance

  • Lack of continuing medical education on antibiotic use for prescribers

  • Lack of microbiological lab capacity/lab training/diagnostic tools

In addition, many hospitals (mainly those that are not university hospitals) rely on donations because they cannot afford to buy appropriate antibiotics. This leads to a risk of abusing those donated antibiotics.


APUA Lebanon was founded in March 2003. It is affiliated with the Saint George University Hospital, Nini Hospital, and Rizk Hospital, among others.

Chapter Objectives and Priorities:

  • To conduct activities aimed at raising awareness about the problem of resistance in Lebanon and about the misuse and abuse of antibiotics

  • To increase the knowledge of Lebanese laboratories about appropriate methods of detecting resistance in clinical and environmental isolates

  • To encourage research and educational projects

  • To create a forum for discussion about the issues related to the emergence of antibiotic resistance

  • To work in collaboration with other national and international institutions for the development of a national center for policy making to monitor the use of antibiotics


Read the latest chapter updates here and here

APUA Lebanon has been very active in the fight against antibiotic resistance. The following are some of its most impactful activities:

  • Workshop titled: Research in Antimicrobial Agents: Questions and challenges (3 to 6 May 2008- Mzar Intercontinental- Lebanon)

  • Workshop titled: Measuring Antibiotic Consumption and Correlation with Resistance (October 30, 2009; November 3, 2009; December 4, 2009; December 19, 2009; January 15, 2010- SGH-UMC

  • Academic input in the courses CLAS 321 (Medical Microbiology), CLAS 324 (case studies in Clinical Microbiology), CLAS 322 (Infection Control practices), CLAS 323 (Antimicrobial Agents and Mechanisms of Resistance), and CLAS 325 (Measuring and Auditing Antimicrobial Resistance). These courses are part of a Master of Sciences degree in Clinical Microbiology at the Faculty of Health Sciences- University of Balamand.

  • Participation in the ARMED project between 2005 and 2007

  • Awareness campaigns targeting Lebanese laboratories promoting the use of WHONET software for antimicrobial resistance data collection and analysis. This project targeted 10 well known hospitals throughout Lebanon- Sept 3-5 2009 and April 6-8 2010

  • Participation in 2 health fairs (October 21, 2007 and October 25, 2008) organized by the FHS-UOB about the appropriate use of antibiotics

  • Involvement in research projects


Dr. Ziad Daoud - Faculty of Medicine & Medical Sciences- University of Balamand- St George University Hospital, Beirut- PhD Microbiology, Head of Clinical Microbiology laboratory

Dr. Claude Afif - Faculty of Medicine & Medical Sciences- University of Balamand- St George University Hospital, Beirut- MD Infectious Diseases, Head of Infection Control dpt.

Dr. Monzer Hamze - Université Libanaise- Hopital Nini, Tripoli- PhD Microbiology, Head of Clinical Microbiology laboratory

Dr. Jacques Mokhbat - Rafic Hariri Hospital, Beirut- MD Infectious Diseases, Head of Infectious Diseases dpt.

Dr. Eid Azar - Faculty of Medicine & Medical Sciences- University of Balamand- St George University Hospital, Beirut- MD Infectious Diseases, Head of Infectious Diseases dpt.

Ms. Micheline Hajjar - Senior Microbiologist, St George University Hospital, Beirut- MS Microbiology


Dr. Hakime et al., of the APUA-Lebanon chapter, have written a case study of the first reported case of Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus in Lebanon. See Full Article